Burning and logging differentially affect endemic vs. widely distributed butterfly species in Borneo

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Authors: Cleary, DFR; Mooers, AO
Year: 2006
Journal: Divers Distrib 12: 409-416
Title: Burning and logging differentially affect endemic vs. widely distributed butterfly species in Borneo
Abstract: We assess the differential impact of logging and ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation)-induced disturbance on the relative butterfly abundance and species richness of range-restricted and widespread species within the island of Borneo. Relative abundance and species richness were assessed using rarefaction and species accumulation curves in unburned isolates surrounded by burned forest, the burned forest itself, and continuous forest unaffected by ENSO-induced disturbance in addition to logged and unlogged landscapes in unburned forest. The relative abundance of endemics was significantly higher in unlogged forest than logged forest and significantly higher in unburned forest than burned forest. Rarefied species richness of range categories was similar (Bornean endemics) or higher (other categories) in selectively logged than unlogged forest. In contrast, rarefied species richness of range-restricted species was highest in continuous forest, intermediate in unburned isolates, and lowest in burned forest. Only two individuals of a single Bornean endemic species were found in all the burned forest. Although species richness was higher in all range categories in continuous forest than in unburned isolates and in burned forest, the difference was most pronounced for range-restricted species. Logging and ENSO-induced fires thus have contrasting effects on range-restricted species. While both increase the relative abundance of widely distributed species at the expense of range-restricted species, only ENSO-induced disturbance lowers the rarefied number of restricted range species. Our research highlights the threat that severe ENSO events pose to geographically restricted classes of biodiversity.
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