16. Van der Flier-Keller, E.GEOSCIENCE OUTREACH Raising Awareness of Earth Science through the BC Year of Science 2010-2011.Geosci. Can., 2011, 38: 182-190 GEOSCIENCE OUTREACH Raising Awareness of Earth Science through the BC Year of Science 2010-2011
The British Columbia Year of Science (YoS), held in 2010-11, was a provincial government-science community collaboration aimed at engaging youth in science. The YoS provided a timely opportunity to expand our Earth science outreach efforts in British Columbia. Key components of the three initiatives reported on below include university student engagement, collaboration with partners (both within the university and in government and community sectors), funding from a variety of sources, and a target audience of primarily youth, their teachers and parents. The first project, Earth Science and Society, involved K-12 classroom presentations (127 to 2615 students), teacher and educator workshops (8 to similar to 138 participants) and community events (15, audience of similar to 1238). Of the K-12 students surveyed, 89.8% indicated that because of the presentations they wanted to learn more about science. In the second project, Earth science was an important part of one of the four YoS signature Expos, 'Science and the World Around Us' held in Prince George with over 3000 youth and community participants. The third project, 'Science in our Lives', involved development of nine societally relevant hands-on activities (4 involving aspects of Earth science) that were posted on [http://uvic.ca/sciweb/], together with 21 scientist-career profiles. The latter, featured as '5 Minutes with a Scientist', highlighted exciting relevant careers in science, and portrayed scientists as real, approachable people doing interesting things that they are passionate about. Key successes of these outreach efforts include: i) funding from multiple sources enabling us to recruit and support four undergraduate students to participate in a broad-ranging outreach program; ii) partnerships and collaborations developed with government, the community and within the university; and iii) legacy resources, including activities, career profiles, teacher workshop manuals, and a new school program in non-renewable resources developed with Capital Region District Victoria to supplement their 3R sustainability school program offerings.
15. Van der Flier-Keller, E; Clinton, L; Haidl, F.EdGEO: Helping Teachers Teach Earth Science.Geosci. Can., 2009, 36: 133-138 EdGEO: Helping Teachers Teach Earth Science
EdGEO is a national program that supports Earth science workshops for Canadian teachers. Geoscientists and teachers work collaboratively to develop and deliver these curriculum-linked workshops, which provide teachers with the classroom resources, enhanced knowledge, and increased confidence to teach Earth science more effectively. Grants of up to $3000 per workshop are available from EdGEO for this purpose. The ability of EdGEO to advance its vital mission relies on the generous support of scientific associations, corporations, foundations and individuals. With increased funding, EdGEO's future will see the compilation of EdGEO lesson plans from workshops across Canada, and the development of learning activities to integrate Earth science into physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics; all these resources will be available for download from the EdGEO web site.
14. Sanei, H; Goodarzi, F; Van der Flier-Keller, E.Historical variation of elements with respect to different geochemical fractions in recent sediments from Pigeon Lake, Alberta, Canada?J. Environ. Monit., 2001, 3: 27-36 Historical variation of elements with respect to different geochemical fractions in recent sediments from Pigeon Lake, Alberta, Canada?
Geochemical analysis of elements and organic matter were conducted on vertical profiles of the recent sediments from Pigeon Lake, Alberta, Canada, to determine historical variations in elemental content of the sediments as related to their geochemical fractions. The elements are grouped according to their affinity with different geochemical fractions, by using cluster analysis and sequential extraction experiments. As a result, four elemental fi actions were identified: elastic mineral detritus; carbonate; organic; and elements that show less similarity to the previous groups perhaps due to anthropogenic input or the influence of other fractions, such as oxyhydroxides. Following the identification of geochemical fractions in the sediments, a three-step normalizing method was applied using parameters that represent each geochemical fraction. These normalizing techniques appear to be important in verifying whether the variation of elements is indeed the result of anthropogenic and/or natural activities. The normalized data are correlated with the recent history of human activity and natural events near Pigeon Lake. Given the age of the lake sediments, this correlation indicates that the depth profiles of elements after being normalized to the organic and carbonate fractions reflect the variation of detrital input into the lake. However, the former mainly corresponds to the coarse-grained elastic minerals originating from high-energy erosion as the result of natural events (e.g., flooding), whereas the latter corresponds to the low-energy erosion of the fine particles (enriched in lithophile elements) due to deforestation in the drainage basin. Normalizing to the elastic mineral detritus fraction results in the increase of heavy metals in the uppermost part of the sediment profiles, which coincides with industrial activities-during the past two decades in central Alberta. However, the concentration of these elements is negligible, as compared to the quantities released by geogenic processes (erosion). DOI PubMed
13. Guthrie, RH; VanderFlier-Keller, E.The contribution of geology to debris slides on Vancouver Island, BC.Proceedings, Eighth international congress // International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment : 21 - 25 September 1998, Vancouver, Canada, Vols 1-5, 1998, : 1993-1999 The contribution of geology to debris slides on Vancouver Island, BC
Twenty six debris slides of approximately one hectare and larger were examined in the Tsitika and Schmidt Creek watersheds on northern Vancouver Island. Physical attributes were recorded for all sites. Bedrock and surficial geology played a significant role in the occurrence and distribution of these debris slides, both temporally and spatially. Bedrock consists of the Karmutsen Volcanics; an accumulation of submarine and subareal flood basalts, and of Island Intrusives; a granitic intrusive complex. Debris slides occurred preferentially over the Karmutsen Volcanics, and along dip slopes. Further, debris slides occurred preferentially in tills as opposed to any other surficial sediments. Debris typically initiated on steep upper-slopes, at the bedrock till interface. Further downslope they tended to continue sliding on a weathered-intact sediment interface and the role of bedrock was diminished.
12. VANDERFLIERKELLER, E.RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS IN WESTERN CANADIAN COALS.Energy Sources, 1993, 15: 623-638 RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS IN WESTERN CANADIAN COALS
Rare earth elements (REE) were determined in an age series, Lower Cretaceous to Eocene, of seven western Canadian coals using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The coals are from three tectonic belts, namely, Insular (Suquash, Comox, and Nanaimo), Intermontane (Tulameen and Hat Creek), and Northeast Rocky Mountain (Quintette and Bullmoose). Rank ranges from lignite-subbituminous B C (Hat Creek) to medium-volatile bituminous (Quintette and Bull-moose). Concentrations of LREEs and HREEs are highest in Quintette (eg., 32.3 ppm Ce) and Suquash (eg., 0.47 ppm Lu) coals respectively and lowest in the Nanaimo (e.g., 8.7 ppm Ce and 0.1 ppm Lu) and Comox coals. Chondrite-normalized patterns show enrichment of the LREE compared with HREE. In addition, an Eu anomaly occurs in all but the Nanaimo and Comox deposits. Shale-normalized patterns show little differentiation with respect to shale in the Intermontane and Northeast Rocky Mountain coals, however, HREE enrichments occur in the Insular Belt deposits. High correlation coefficients with specific ash constituents in the coal indicate that the REE are associated with clay minerals, heavy minerals, and calcite. Preferential occurrence of the HREE or LREE in different mineral phases occurs in, for example, the Comox and Tulameen deposits. Vertical distributions of the REE primarily reflect variations in ash content of the coal-bearing sections, however, some variations do occur. In the Tulameen deposit the LREE are progressively more depleted toward the base of the section, both in coal and interbedded shale. Considerable variability exists in REE concentrations and shale-normalized patterns from coals worldwide. In general Cretaceous coals appear to be more HREE enriched than Tertiary or Carboniferous coals. REE concentrations in the Canadian coals examined do not reflect age or rank of the deposits. Rather, source rock variations, modified by weathering, and depositional/diagenetic histories of the deposits, are thought to control the PEE variations observed. DOI
11. VANDERFLIERKELLER, E; BARTIER, P.APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION-SYSTEMS TO INTERPRETATION OF COAL GEOCHEMISTRY DATA.Int. J. Coal Geol., 1993, 24: 293-308 APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION-SYSTEMS TO INTERPRETATION OF COAL GEOCHEMISTRY DATA
This study examines the application of GIS to the analysis and display of coal quality data at the mine scale, and to the qualitative interpretation of mine scale spatial distributions related to regional trends of stream sediment geochemistry, mineral deposit occurrence information, and palaeoenvironments. Nature of the data and the data classification scheme used are discussed in the context of pattern interpretation. Geochemistry data for fourteen coal samples from the Gates Formation at the Bullmoose (South Fork) Mine are examined. Regional geochemistry data, and mineral deposit occurrence information are from the Regional Geochemical Surveys (RGS) and MINFILE databases of the BC MEMPR GSB, respectively. The SPANS GIS was used to generate geochemistry surface maps using the moving weighted average interpolation method. Contingency analyses were carried out to examine similarity between maps of the same scale. Distributions of elements over the Bullmoose South Fork mine site are variable; however, comparisons between element maps show similarities in distributions of Cu and ash, U and Th, Cr and Co, and fixed C and Cl. Major trends are highlighted by reducing local variability. The number and type of class intervals chosen as well as the density and distribution of data points will effect the degree of confidence in the trends displayed. Regional topography and geochemistry maps facilitate interpretation of mine scale element distributions in a regional context. DOI
9. VANDERFLIERKELLER, E.PLATINUM-GROUP ELEMENTS IN TULAMEEN COAL, BRITISH-COLUMBIA, CANADA.Econ. Geol. Bull. Soc. Econ. Geol., 1991, 86: 387-395 PLATINUM-GROUP ELEMENTS IN TULAMEEN COAL, BRITISH-COLUMBIA, CANADA
Nickel sulfide fire assay neutron activation analysis and lead fire assay direct current plasma spectroscopy were used to determine platinum-group elements (PGE) and gold in 30 channel samples and 23 fault-related samples from the Blakeburn opencast mine, south-central British Columbia, Canada. In the majority of the channel samples concentrations of Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Re were below detection. Pt in the coal ranged from below detection to 170 ppb, and Au from below detection to 38 ppb. Concentrations of all the PGE, with the exception of Ru, were on average higher in the coals than in the sediments. In the deformed coal samples Os, Ru, Rh, and Re were typically below detection. Anomalous values of Pt, up to > 10,000 ppb, were determined in three deformed coal samples, and Pd and Ir were comparatively enriched in the majority of deformed coal samples (up to 6,100 and 22 ppb, respectively) compared with channel samples. On the basis of SEM-EDX, and comparisons with ash and organic matter contents, it is likely that Pt and Au are present in the coal as discrete particles, preciptated from circulating ground waters on contact with the organic-rich, reducing, and low pH environment of the coal. Pt and Au distributions appear to be related to sources of the elements in ground water, i.e., interbedded volcanic units and the Tulameen Ultramafic Complex for Pt, and interbedded clastic sedimentary units for Au. Enhanced concentrations of Pt and Pd occur in coal samples associated with two faults. DOI
8. VANDERFLIERKELLER, E; GOODARZI, F.GEOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON MAJOR AND TRACE-ELEMENT CHARACTERISTICS CRETACEOUS COALS OF VANCOUVER ISLAND, CANADA.Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr., 1991, 162: 255-265 GEOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON MAJOR AND TRACE-ELEMENT CHARACTERISTICS CRETACEOUS COALS OF VANCOUVER ISLAND, CANADA
CRETACEOUS COALS; MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENTS; ASH AND MINERAL CONTENT; GEOLOGICAL CONTROLS; DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS; CANADA
Coal-bearing Cretaceous strata on Vancouver Island, western Canada, occur in three major sub-basins; Nanaimo, Comox and Suquash. The coals were deposited under coastal plain conditions on the eastern margin of the Insular Belt, in a foreland basin setting. The sub-basins have distinct patterns for certain elements including anomalous As and Sb values in the Comox coals; Ba in the Nanaimo coals and Au, B, Cl and REE in addition to the majority of inorganically associated elements in the Suquash coals. These patterns appear primarily to reflect differences in depositional environment, source rocks and ash or mineral contents of the coal. For example B values in each sub-basin are quite distinct reflecting most brackish conditions associated with deposition of the Suquash coals. Although dominated by basic igneous rocks, the higher proportion of acidic igneous source lithologies in a northerly direction appear to contribute to an increase in levels of Au, Sb, Zr and HEE in the Comox and Suquash coals and a corresponding decrease in elements such as Cr, Ni, Rb, and Ta. The abundance of inorganically associated elements is controlled largely by the detrital and clay mineral content of the coals, in addition, mineral phases such as pyrite and dolomite control distributions of Zn, Co, Ni, Sc and S, and MgO respectively. Within basin elemental variations are controlled by a variety of factors including structure (Au is enriched on average by a factor of 5 in deformed Wellington Seam coal in the Nanaimo sub-basin compared to equivalent undeformed coal) and depositional environment.